Turn of the Century

Anglo-Ashanti War Origins w. History of Africa Podcast

February 09, 2021
Turn of the Century
Anglo-Ashanti War Origins w. History of Africa Podcast
Show Notes Transcript

Today part of Ghana, the Gold Coast in West Africa was a Crown Jewel of the British Empire. Over the 19th century, the Brits fought FIVE wars with the Ashanti Kingdom for control of this territory.

We’re joined by the ‘History of Africa’ podcast to understand how these specific wars began and what they meant for the future of the continent. 

Andy ____ is the host of the ‘History of Africa podcast’. He has been researching the Anglo-Ashanti wars in his newest season, but has also covered Egypt and Ethiopia on excellent previous seasons.

Hosted and Produced by Joseph Hawthorne

Edited by Jordan Hawthorne (surprisingly unrelated!)



Joseph Hawthorne:

Welcome to turn of the century, a podcast about the turn of the 20th century. I'm Joe Hawthorne and today we're discussing warfare on the African Gold Coast. Now part of Ghana, the Gold Coast in West Africa, was a crown jewel of the British Empire. But it wasn't always that way. Over the 19th century, the Brits fought five wars with the Ashanti kingdom, for control of this territory, we're joined by the history of Africa podcast to understand how these specific wars began, and what they meant for the future of the continent. Without further ado, here come Anglo Ashanti wars. Hi, everyone. I'm excited to be here with Andy host of the history of Africa podcast. And he's been researching the Anglo Ashanti wars in his newest season. But he's also covered Egypt and Ethiopia on previous excellent seasons of the history of Africa podcast. Thanks so much for joining Andy.

Andy:

It's a pleasure to be here.

Joseph Hawthorne:

Same. And I am really excited when you reached out to talk about these wars. These are conflicts that I had never heard about before, but seem really critical to understanding history of the continent at the turn of the 20th century. So we're going to do something a little bit historic today, in that we're going to try and cover five different wars. In one conversation. Before we get into the conflicts. Can you give me and us some context? What was the state of the British and Ashanti empires or Kingdom at the beginning of the 1800s?

Andy:

Well, I will actually raise you a harder one, we're actually going to be covering seven conflicts today. If you count the ones I'm going to be listing in our introductions. So okay, deal. I want to start out by providing some context for the Ashanti because, unfortunately, the Ashanti historically, while relatively well known when it comes to African kingdoms of the early modern period, are still relatively obscure. So the Ashanti are run by an ethnic group known as the Ashanti, which are part of the larger ethnic umbrella known as the Akan, who are the largest ethnicity in many regions throughout West Africa, but primarily in Ghana, is where they are at their largest majority. And like all con peoples of Ghana, they find their origins with a kingdom called Bowman, which originates in the 12th century. And, you know, fascinating history, that is irrelevant to our conversation, but essentially to make a to make a long matter short, it gradually dissolves over time into essentially going from a centralized Kingdom into a Confederacy of loosely related city states and like little clans, into essentially not existing. And one of those clans that was once part of the Bonoman kingdom is called the oyako. And they are basically a small family unit. They could be called a tribe or a clan, you know, not a very big centralized Empire. And the oyoko clan founds a city called Kumasi, meaning city under the kumquats because basically the founder of the city planted three kumquat trees and saw where they grew the fastest to find the most fertile soil. It's a fascinating story. And this new city of Kumasi quickly starts to grow as an economic center, but it's not the big boy on the block. The big boy on the block is the city called den Kira, which is run by another group of people and den Kira is this very wealthy, small but wealthy trading empire that basically rules over a con people's under their rule with an iron fist. And eventually, a man named Osei tutu, who is basically the sort of national hero of the Ashanti decides to unite the various disparate Ashanti clans, and declare himself the Asantehene, which basically means king of the Ashanti, and he fights a war against the Denkyira and defeats them, and the Ashanti are now an independent kingdom. However, they're basically just at this point, still a collection of clans. So in order to really create a national identity where one previously hadn't existed, he unites them around what is called the Golden stool, in which he takes the Royal stool, you know, basically like the throne of the Ashanti, coats and gold. And in Ashanti belief, basically, the stool holds the soul of whoever sits on it. And so this golden stool holds all the souls of the people who have sat on it, who are him and the future of Santa Ynez.

Joseph Hawthorne:

So just to jump in for all listeners, that stool is going to come back in To play, there's a reason we're bringing it up now.

Andy:

Oh, for sure, for sure it will be of great importance later. And because it's basically, you know how Americans are very sensitive about about our flag. Imagine that times 100. When it comes to the golden school, it is the Ashanti kingdom. And upon rising into becoming the centralized Empire, the Ashanti immediately find themselves at war with most of their neighbors, simply because the West African economy at the time is really defined by three products, which are gold, ivory, and slaves. And golden ivory are very finite resources. Gold comes out of the ground, you find a mine, you basically exploit that mine until it's out of gold. And then you move on, you conquer a new one, and you exploit that one. Similarly, ivory, you basically hunt certain hunting grounds for elephants, you know, not great for conservation, but great for the coffers of whatever Kingdom you're working for. And then you you hunt it until there's no more elephants, and then you conquer a new hunting ground and do the same there. And of course, slaves are a byproduct of that conquest to begin with.

Joseph Hawthorne:

To clarify, what time period are we talking about right now as the shanty are consolidating?

Andy:

Oh, I should have mentioned that. Yes, this takes place around the 17th century.

Joseph Hawthorne:

Okay. So a few centuries before, we're building a few centuries before to the 18th century, and onward, but right now we're in the 1600s.

Andy:

And so basically, that whole, the whole West African economy relies on military conquest of one type or another. And so the Ashanti in order to get a leg up invite basically, the from a neighboring kingdom called Akwamu, who Osei tutu had previously You know, he had previously lived there, he had great deep running connections between himself and the royal family, this other kingdom. He invites them because they are renowned for their advanced tactical skills. And he essentially invites military advisors to Ashanti to instruct their army in the UK huamu ways of war. And if you've ever studied European history, in the 19th century, what I'm about to say will sound really familiar to you. Because this new Ashanti army is composed of seven different parts. At the front, there are the scouts who scout behind them, there are the advanced guard, who basically are some of the best drilled troops in the Ashanti army. They are meant to basically directly engage with the enemy, clamp them in one spot, and basically prevent them from engaging in a sort of mobility where they get met by the next section of the army, which is the main army. It's a lot less professional than the other sections. It's mostly composed of conscripts. And I guess you could call it sort of the meat wall of the army. That makes sense. It's the part of the army where just you pack as many people together as possible. And it's sort of the main body of the force on each side, or the left and right wings, which are composed of veteran professionalized troops, who are supposed to encircle the enemy. Around the general there's the generals guard. Again, if you've studied 19th century European history, this will remind you a lot of Napoleon's Imperial Guard, because they are forces that are rarely ever used in battle. They are among the most well trained and drilled within the Ashanti army. And they are only used in basically emergency circumstances. behind them is the rear guard, who basically just prevent the army from being encircled by defending the rear. And then the last one is actually unique in West Africa, they're the first ones to do it in any major capacity is that they have a support garrison of medics and artisans who can, you know, chop down trees to clear paths and make boats for river crossings and treat the wounded and, you know, do logistical support, which is a lot more important in warfare than it sounds as we're going to quickly learn. And so I said, that would sound familiar, because if you've ever studied Napoleonic conflicts, that might sound a lot like the reforms that Napoleon made to the French army. And that's, that is a coincidence, because this is about 100 years before these tactics are adopted many major centers in Europe. They sort of covert, what's the word like evolve in a convergent manner where they're not related to each other, but they just happen to end up at a similar spot.

Joseph Hawthorne:

So I you know, I, I confess, I'm not an expert on European military tactics as well. Or either or, but I'm curious, what were the standard military practices like before this seven part army

Andy:

in West Africa or in Europe?

Joseph Hawthorne:

Yeah. Well, I Guess what was the upgrade that we're talking about? Is it all around having different kinds of units?

Andy:

Well, yeah, it's basically that you specialize the force more, whereas more as it was, prior to that more of a generalized concept of that you have, you know, you have your infantry, you have your artillery and your cavalry and your cavalry trysten circle, whereas what Napoleon introduced was this whole system of granite ears, and basically, like this whole system in which it's highly regimented, highly specialized, and the Ashanti have a system much more like that. The only thing that really differs is that because of the terrain of West Africa, you can't really have cavalry or artillery, like good luck wheeling cannons through the rain forests of Ashanti land. So they really only adopt them as like static defenses, but they don't really have them in their army just because it wouldn't be worth the effort.

Joseph Hawthorne:

So it sounds like one of the first conclusions that we can draw is that via Shanti, are one of the most sophisticated militaries in the area.

Andy:

Yes, and no, because, believe it or not, the Ashanti are not that much more advanced than their neighbors in terms of tactics. Remember, they borrowed this from their neighbors, they didn't invent it. What really sets them apart is that support unit, you know, in that they have a full time staff of medics, and a full time staff of people who can build bridges and restock their army supplies, and more importantly, that their army is better drilled and more professional. And when I say professional, I mean that most of the soldiers in the Ashanti with the exception of the main body of the force, so all the wings and advanced and rear guards I told you about are all full time soldiers, they do it for a living, right? If you ask these guys, where do you work, they would say I work at the Ashanti army. Whereas you know, other armies at the time might say, Oh, I'm a farmer. I just happened to be in the army another kingdom of the region. And with this professionalized army, the Ashanti become, they go from basically a city state of Kumasi to becoming one of the major powers of West Africa. And they basically, it aligns fairly well with the regions of Ghana, excluding the coast and the Ashanti around the in a gradual process, basically, conquer that whole region. There's an interesting history there, but it's not really relevant for our story. And what is relevant, though, is that by the beginning of the 19th century, they've reached the coast and they encounter a people named the Fante. And the Fante, run a system called the fante Confederacy, where it's a bunch of loosely associated clans who come together to sort of vaguely pay homage to a single monarch. And these people are, they have a system similar to the Ashanti, but again, it's mostly conscripts. But what they do have that's an advantage is that they're on the coast, and they have deeper connections with the European merchants, specifically, the British. And this is where conflict really starts to become an issue. The British since the 17th century, have been operating trade forts, by a company called the British company of African merchants, which is an English charter company, sort of something like the British East India, or British West Indian companies, if you've ever heard of those. And this company forms a really close alliance between the British and the fonti. And that's a problem because the Ashanti and the fonti are going to engage in a series of wars and the British are basically going to be called into those. The first of these and so the first time we see Ashanti troops clash with British ones, is in 1806, in the Ashanti fonti war, and it is incredibly one sided Initially, the Ashanti basically sweep into fonti land, and just massacre the British and fonti troops. But they do struggle to capitalize and they're forced to leave Fanteland. So I guess we can call it an Ashanti victory, but a limited one, and that they were able to basically crush the forces of their enemies, but they weren't really able to occupy the territory.

Joseph Hawthorne:

And so I'm curious, do the British know or how much would you say the British understand the geopolitical conflicts that they're walking into? Do they know who the Ashanti are before this battle or war?

Andy:

Oh, for certain they, they you have to assume that they did. Because the British have been present in West Africa for around 100 years, I'll be in a very limited capacity. Really prior to I'd say like 1900 or sorry, not 19 or 1800. I mean, European, so called colonization of Africa, for the most part was limited to basically a few Europeans arrive in a boat, and they build a fort. And they trade with the locals from that fort. So yeah, the British knew who the Ashanti were. And they knew that West African armies are generally generally pretty professional. So they weren't ignorant of the Ashanti. military power at this time. It seems more so here that they were simply trying to maintain a relationship with the fonti. They're at this point, British ambitions in West Africa are nothing colonial yet.

Joseph Hawthorne:

These are more like trading outposts, you'd say?

Andy:

Yeah, definitely. Okay,

Joseph Hawthorne:

and how does it start to change? Or how does it evolve? Maybe we'll say,

Andy:

oh, we'll definitely get to that. We'll we'll see that evolution process. But what's important is that in 1811, again, the Ashanti and the fonti, go to war, basically, in a shanty ally declares war on the fonti. And, again, the Ashanti crush the fonti, and their British allies, and they even capture a British for which is a pretty big deal, because they were unable to do that in the first war. And usually when African forces defeat European ones at this time, they usually defeat their army but are unable to capture the fort. And that's a pretty big deal. But in the end, you have a similar outcome, the Ashanti won the war, but failed to hold on to the territory that they capture. And the British sign a peace treaty with the Ashanti around this time. And basically until now until 1820, this peace treaty is going to hold. But eventually, and this is where you see the ambition start is that the African company of merchants just completely economically implodes around 1820. The British ended the slave trade, and that was the main export of this company of merchants. So instead, the British government simply an exit basically seizes all the remaining assets, and turns the British company of merchants, the British company and Company of African merchants into a, you know, another British state possession. And they appoint a colonial governor, a guy named Charles MacCarthy. And this is reall important for Ashanti relations because that previous treat with the British and the Ashant is a bit of a misnomer. shouldn't really be calling it treaty between the British an the Ashanti. It's a treat between the British company o African merchants and th Ashanti. And they're gone. S now the British are here, an they don't recognize this ol treaty with the Ashanti, jus fo

Joseph Hawthorne:

context to again, how big is this possession that the British government now is taking over? How much land or people What is this place that the British are taking over?

Andy:

I'm pretty minimal. At this point. Basically, their control is a I'd say that you could probably approximate it to basically the Canadian Coast and that they have the, the fonti, sort of loosely on their side, and they have a few forks. It's not a whole lot. And this, basically, this first war with the Ashanti, that breaks out, because the Ashanti, they do a raid into fonti land and are really surprised when the British fire back at them because they think that they have a treaty with the British turns out, I was with the company and the Brits don't recognize it anymore. So in retaliation, they captured imprison a British officer, and the British are just enraged by this, like the audacity to capture and imprison a British officer like hasn't really been done in the region before.

Joseph Hawthorne:

And do the shanty understand the change that's happened? Or do they know that the change has happened as well?

Andy:

Not yet, they're certainly not aware of this, it really seems more so to them, probably that there's just this new governor who's acting a foul, you know, there's this new British guy in charge, and he's acting a foul. Certainly, they'll recognize later that this was more of the beginning of a new era than anything else. But certainly at first, this probably just seemed like one British, you know, the new British guys in charge, and he's acting unusual compared to the old ways, but certainly over time, they probably would have realized like, this was one thing started to go wrong between them and the British. And this guy, Charles MacCarthy, he really tries to basically ruin any previous relationship that they had with the shop. He is enraged by this audacity to capture this officer, and he takes an army of 500 British and he just leaves them straight into Ashanti land and basically an attempted invasion. He is massacred. He leaves 500 British soldiers in 20 come out. Think about that if you were in a group of 500 people, right, and they said 20 of you are gonna live and the rest are gonna die. Would you be thinking Oh, yeah, I like those odds. Yeah, probably not. And one of the people who dies is McCarthy himself. And not only does he die, but the Ashanti because they're sort of outraged by this new British governor, ruining their previously somewhat positive or at least neutral relationship. They hollow his skull out and use it as a cup, just as a sign of disrespect and like to sort of assert dominance of like, we have defeated you don't mess with us. This isn't a tactic that's not unique to North Africa. The Mongols famously did it in Central Asia as well. It's Charlemagne and the Franks used it a lot on the Romans. there's a there's a fancy Latin term for it, but I can't remember where you use someone's skull as a cup. And it Okay, so the Ashanti have this overwhelming victory. So you assume that they just sweep down into the coast. And they do. And you'd assume that they just captured the British colony and basically kicked them out, but they don't. They fight a battle against the British, and the British in their in their own land in Ghana. Start by losing this battle. But the British we allow basically a new weapon that hasn't been shown off in a shanty land called rocket artillery, which is a bit different from old cannons in ways that I don't have the physics expertise to describe perfectly. But basically, it what's really special about it is that it creates a very impressive sight and sound that canon simply couldn't recreate. And this sort of spooks the Ashanti into an early retreat, which devastates them because the British follow and sort of like, tail them and attack them while they're retreating. The Ashanti managed to eventually sort of reconcile and fight to a stalemate with the British. And after eight years of fighting, the British finally sign a peace treaty with the Ashanti. And this treaty of 1831 is actually a really big deal. Because the British do something that they rarely ever do, which is that they recognize the Ashanti as an independent nation. Now, that doesn't sound special, right, like the Ashanti were already independent, right? Like, what's the big deal. But the thing is, is that when a nation is officially capital II independent, you can't just send in British settlers and merchants, you know, like the British, for example, never recognized the independence of many Native American tribes, because they would then have to negotiate with them when they sent in missionaries and settlers. But now that they've said, the Ashanti, our capital, I independent kingdom, they can't just do that. They have to ask permission, they have to negotiate they have to treat them, like they would say, France in a negotiation.

Joseph Hawthorne:

So why did they recognize the Shanti as an independent nation? Was it because the battle wasn't so much in their favor?

Andy:

Well, it's simple if the if the British don't recognize the Ashanti and give them a favorable peace treaty, the Ashanti are just going to keep fighting them. And this war is not going well, for the British, it's cutting into their profits. Earlier, they got completely decimated in a battle. The war is now basically a bloody stalemate. So sure you recognize their independence and the war ends and you can go back to trading. And is this the first official Ashanti war?

Joseph Hawthorne:

Are we not even there yet?

Andy:

No, no, this is the first official Ashanti war. This is the one that in the history books is the capital of first Anglo Ashanti war. Although I would argue it's actually the third but I mean, you know, how history is with that sort of thing.

Joseph Hawthorne:

So the first and the to know, alpha war, beta war, and then number one war. Yeah, I guess we can negate number it but great. So, Ashanti are recognized as an independent nation. And then everything is good, the treaties. And there's there's no more for more wars, what happens next?

Andy:

Well, basically, the most important thing is that you asked how big the British were at this point. And earlier, it was kind of hard to define, but it's really easy to define now because they set a border at a river in Ghana called the pro River, which basically comes out of or basically flows into the Atlantic Ocean at this sort of like horizontal and then vertical angle that really makes it look good as like a coastal border. And this is not really a gain or loss of land for the Ashanti it was sort of a consolidation of disputed land more than anything else. And that pro river border is gonna stay for quite a while and basically From 1831 until 1863, the Ashanti are enjoy largely peaceful relations, which is quite a while that's 32 years. You know, if I said that I was married for 32 years, you probably think, Wow, that's a really good relationship. Right?

Joseph Hawthorne:

Well, also, I mean, you know, I think most countries, if you look at any sort of history of any country, most countries don't stay out of war for 32 years. So 32 years of peace is a, you know, it's a lifetime or not a lifetime, but a full generation and more

Andy:

a lifetime for maybe someone who lives dangerously. But

Joseph Hawthorne:

yeah, maybe I shouldn't say lifetime, like half

Andy:

a lifetime, which is still a lot. Right? Yeah, that's a, it's a pretty strong relationship. At this point. The I mean, the British Ashanti are basically neutral towards each other. I wouldn't call them friends. But they're, you know, the British have recognized their independence, and they've sort of, you know, things have improved. Where do things fall apart? Well, they don't fall apart for even until 1863. Because that's the start of the Anglo, the second Anglo Ashanti war. And what really happens is, this is more of a standard diplomatic dispute than a complete collapse of a relationship. Right. And Ashanti fugitive crosses into British land. And he's being followed by Ashanti soldiers who cross into British land to try and capture him. And this provokes a war. You know, that's pretty standard diplomatic football, like, you know, one country, sort of, you know, has to capture someone and they, you know, maybe go a little bit too far and trying to get them or like, in West Africa wasn't really a big deal to go into another country's land to capture a fugitive from your own country. Right. Whereas in like Europe, or America, for example, like if a criminal escapes to Canada, we expect Canada to give them back to us, not for us to just march in and take him right. That wasn't really the case with the Ashanti. So they didn't really work on that paradigm in the West African paradigm. If someone like if a criminal escapes from your country to a neighboring country, you're allowed to just go and get them as respectful to allow their troops and to take that to take that criminal back to their country.

Joseph Hawthorne:

So it How long is this war? This seems like a more shortened conflict, but it sets these two entities on a new path to violence.

Andy:

Yeah, it's a pretty brief war. Not basically the Ashanti army that crossed into British land engages with the British Army and both sides end up sending reinforcements until it's more of a battle. There's some initial Ashanti gains, but it's mostly a stalemate, the British and Ashanti are mostly unable to really move either sides lines. But eventually two things really start to take a toll on the British is that the Ashanti wings sort of instead of trying to was encircled the British sort of set into a more harassment and sniper focused role, which they basically set up positions around the tradition just pepper them with cyber attacks. And tropical disease as well starts to take a real toll on the British. And so the British think, Okay, look like this war isn't going well for us, you know, it's a stalemate. We're not really gaining anything. let's just, let's just get out of here, fine. Ashanti you can keep your fugitive. Like, that's a it's it's a war that really doesn't change anything, but it sort of shows that the Ashanti are still capable of holding their own and even defeating a British force. But there are more wars,

Joseph Hawthorne:

how do things how does our 30 year peace unravel

Andy:

our 30 year peace really unravels with the annexation of the Dutch gold Coast's colony in 1871, I believe in which the so for some contexts, the Ashanti have a much better relationship with the Dutch than they do with the British. They've never fought a war with the Dutch the Dutch have always been sort of Ashanti allies in the region, they actually provided some material help to the Ashanti with one of the earliest wars against the British. And in return for this help, the Ashanti decided to lend not give but lend some land to the Dutch for use in the Gold Coast. And you know, okay, things are going well, they're happy to lend the this land to the Dutch because it gives them merchants with whom they can trade and, you know, it's it's a win win situation for the Ashanti to have the Dutch there, and it's a win for the it's a win for the Dutch as well. But in 1871, the Dutch and British agreed to a treaty called the Dutch Anglo Treaty of 1871 because you know, historians are boring. And they basically agreed to swap a bunch of colonies in various capacity throughout their colonial empires to basically smooth out borders and make sure that you know, yeah, basically the the British concede some stuff in Indonesia and the Dutch concede some stuff in Africa, you know just to basically more establish who has trading rights where. And this is a problem because one of the territories that the British take from the Dutch is land that wasn't really the Dutch is to give away. It was this land that they were basically leasing from the Ashanti and the Ashanti upon seeing all these British troops move into this formerly Dutch land that was, you know, really, there's they, they're, whoa, whoa, whoa, what's going on here? You know, we gave this land to the Dutch to us not for you to just march in and take. It's basically by them viewed as more of a hostile takeover than any sort of, like, diplomatic arrangement, or like rearrangement. You know? Yeah, I

Joseph Hawthorne:

mean, that's listening to that. It's kind of like if I borrowed a microphone, or a TV from a friend, and then I sold it to someone else. That's a pretty good deal for me, but not so good for, for really anyone else. But for for the person that I borrowed it from especially,

Andy:

that is a great way of putting it, I was going to use the metaphor that it's like you loan a friend a car, so that you guys can carpool to work together? And then they sell it for cheap. Yes. Similar, similar.

Joseph Hawthorne:

Yeah. And then but you also, I mean, you have the added bonus for the Dutch of like, they're not sticking around to be your friend with the TV, they're literally leaving the entire areas. So you know, not their problem anymore.

Andy:

Exactly. And that is a huge problem that really, I want to highlight because basically, with this acquisition of this Dutch lease, the British now have basically a monopoly on all trade that goes in and out of the shanty land. And of course, like, I mean, we all learn about this with monopolies is that with monopolies, you can charge as much or in this case as little as you want. So they can say to the Ashanti, like, Hey, we want to buy some ivory, we're gonna give you half as much as we would have earlier and half as much as the Dutch would have. Because who else are you going to sell to? Right, and the Ashanti just sort of have to take it. And this is a huge problem. And basically, in retaliation, the Ashanti kidnapped some European missionaries, and basically hold them as hostage to say, okay, Brits, haha, this is funny, give us our land back. And we'll give you these missionaries back. And this turns out to be something of a mistake. Because now I know what you're thinking isn't really a mistake. Can't the can't the Ashanti just beat the British like they have in these previous wars? Well, no, because a few things have been going on in the shanty land in Britain that have really taken any pre existing sort of, like parody that exists in between the forces and really just thrown it completely to hell. And the main one that I cannot highlight enough is that by now the industrial revolution in Britain isn't full swing. They've really been industrializing for a while, but around this era, is when you finally see it start to get to its proper level that we associate with an industrial economy. Right. And this is a huge problem for the Ashanti, because with this new industrialization model, the British adopt a supply a supply chain model that's based on industrialized chips, you know, they adopt, more importantly on manufacturing model that is based on the assembly line. And so with this, the British are capable of producing more guns powder and ammunition in like one factory, then, in the entirety of Ashanti land, could ever produce. The Ashanti are still using the old ways in which, you know, which is similar to what used to be done in Europe, in which you have a dedicated, you know, weapons Smith, right. And, you know, the that weaponsmith is like a craftsman, he builds the, he builds the rifle, you know, and then he sells you the rifle and it's completed. form, you know, it's it's the old ways, it's now things used to be done, but it's, it's kind of starting to grow outdated, and the Ashanti know this. They like, especially military leadership within the Ashanti report on multiple instances to the king that like this is a problem. We are able to match British production. Our firearms, which used to the shoddy firearms are based off of European models from like the late 1700s. And were better modified for the conditions that they used. And they're saying, look, this, this was fine when we used it, but we need to upgrade to these new British models. And we need to start changing our mode of production to a more assembly line focused one. But the king of Ashanti land is a guy named Kofi karikari. And he is maybe, rightly, maybe wrongly, we're not really sure, really paranoid about the army state taking power from him. And given how he acts later in his term, I can, we can kind of assume that it's at least, if it's a valid fear, he at least is exaggerating it, because he's going to turn out to be quite a paranoid king in general.

Joseph Hawthorne:

And I want to use that as a transition to end this conversation, we're going to continue and finish up the shaunti wars. But I like this point, kind of for for both air for warning, maybe, but also to think about the changes that are happening as we reached the turn of the century. So I'm going to wrap it up here and we're going to finish next time with the end of the Ashanti three and war with the fourth and fifth or the sixth and seventh. Next time. If you like what you've heard so far, I also highly recommend going to listen to the history of Africa podcast. And if you also like what you heard from me, then please subscribe rate review, tell your friends, and help us get discovered even more. So thank you so much, Andy, I'm really excited to talk to you again soon. All right.

Andy:

Thank you. It's a pleasure.